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中考英语丨同义替换题的九种考查类型!

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  同义替换题是近几年中考英语的常考题型,其出题形式通常是同时给出两个句子,第一句完整,第二句中设空,要求填入适当的词或短语,使第二句的意思与第一句意思相同。同义替换题综合考查学生的词汇、语法等知识,要求运用所学的词汇、语法知识完成句子,使句子结构完整、逻辑合理、语法知识无误、意思与所给句子相同。

  通过对近几年该题型的分析,我们发现中考英语同义替换题主要考查以下几个方面:


1

运用同义词(组)


用同义词或同义短语对原句中的某些词或短语进行替换,注意转换后的词或短语的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:


1. That day we could see flowers here and there. 

That day we could see flowers __________.

答案:everywhere

解析:everywhere与here and there都表示“到处”。


2. The teacher always takes good care of the children in the school.

The teacher always ______ ______ the children well in the school.

答案:looks after

解析:take good care of与look after…well都表示“好好照顾”。


2

反义词(组)的否定式


即用反义词或短语的否定式表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词(短语)的积累和换位思维的能力。如:


1. It’s clear that this visit is different from last time. 

It’s clear that this visit is not the ______ ______ last time. 

答案:same as

解析: be different from意为“与……不同”;the same as意为“与……相同”,其否定式与be different from同义。


2. I think wealth is less important than health. 

I ______ think wealth is ______ important than health.

答案: don’t ; more


另外,有的反义词不用与否定词连用,只需改变句子结构也可构成同义句。如:

He lent some money to his friend. 

His friend ______ some money ______ him.

答案:borrowed; from

解析:borrow …from …意为“向……借……”;lend…to... 意为“把……借给……”。


3

 运用不同语态 


即运用主动语态与被动语态的变化来转换同义词, 但此时要特别注意时态一致性。如:


1. Everyone should give back his library books on time. 

Library books should______ ______ ______ on time. 

答案:be given back

解析:被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be。


2. It is widely accepted that more people use computers in the world today. 

It is widely accepted that computers ______ widely ______ in the world today. 

答案:are;used

解析:computers是复数名词,助动词用are。


4

 非延续性动词与延续性动词 


非延续性动词与延续性动词进行转换,此时往往会涉及时态的变化。如:


1. The manager left two hours ago. 

The manager ______ ______ ______ for two hours. 

答案: has been away

解析:leave为非延续性动词,不能与for two hours连用,而be away则可连用一段时间。


2. The film began five minutes ago. 

The film has been _____ _____ five minutes.

答案:on for

解析: has been提示时态是现在完成时态,“for + 时间段”表示“持续(一段时间)”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。


3. Mr Li joined the Party twenty years ago.

Mr Li _____ _____ _____ the Party for twenty years.

答案:has been in


5

 直接引语与间接引语 


此时要注意相关时态、人称、动词、状语等相应的变化。如:


1.“I’ve found my wallet,” he said to me.

He ______ me that he______ ______his wallet.

答案:told;had found


2. “Did you see her last week?” he said. 

He ______ ______ I had seen her the week ______.

答案:asked if / whether; before


6

 简单句与复合句 


即将简单句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的简单句。如:


1. We didn’t go out for a walk because it was raining. 

We didn’t go out for a walk ______ ______ the rain.

答案:because of


2. He was so excited that he couldn’t go to sleep.

He was ______ ______ ______ go to sleep.

答案:too excited to

解析:将so…that…换成too…to…结构,原句的that从句为结果状语从句,改写句中的不定式仍表结果。


3. Now I will show you how to do the work. 

Now I will show you ______ ______ ______ do the work.

答案:how you can

解析:即将原句中的“疑问词+不定式”结构转换成宾语从句。


4. You should put them back after you use them. 

You should put them back _____ _____ them.

答案:after using

解析:即将after引导的状语从句改写为after引导的介词短语。


7

 并列句与复合句  


即将并列句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的并列句。如:


1. Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus. 

______ we ______ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus. 

答案:If;don’t


2. The man gave us a talk last week. He will give us another talk this week. 

The man ______ gave us a talk last week ______ ______ us another talk this week. 

答案:who / that;will give

解析:who/ that gave us a talk last week为定语从句,修饰先行词man。


8

 运用关联词连接或合并句子 


即运用关联词both…and…,neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…等将两个简单句合并为一个简单句。此时要注意的是,both…and…连接两个主语时,谓语总是用复数,而neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常应与靠近的主语保持一致。如:


1. Tom can’t speak Japanese well and Jim can’t, either.

______ Tom ______ Jim can speak Japanese well. 

答案:Neither;nor

解析:neither…nor…表示“……和……(两者)都不”,刚好与原句的两个否定结构的意思相吻合。


2. Alice has read the book and Peter has read it, too. 

______ Alice ______ Peter have read the book.

答案:Both;and

解析:both…and…的意思是“……和……(两者)都”。


3. This store sells men’s shoes, and it also sells men’s clothes. 

This store sells ______ ______ men’s shoes ______ ______ men’s clothes. 

答案:not only;but also

解析:not only…but also…表示“不仅……而且……”之意。


9

 某些经典句式或结构 


这类典型结构如so…that…,too…to…,enough to,not…until…,so do I 等。如:


1. Jim wants to go boating and his parents want to go boating, too.

Jim wants to go boating, and ______ ______ his parents. 

答案:so do


2. John went to bed after he finished his homework. 

John ______ go to bed ______ he finished his homework.

答案:didn’t; until

解析:not…until意为“直到……才”。


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